BENGALI — BASIC LANGUAGE COURSE

 

Teaching Truth in Bengali
through English

Teaching Truth in Bengali

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This course will help you to learn to speak Bengali language in a simple and correct manner from the start. Instead of learning first the letters of the Bengali script, they are replaced with Roman characters.  (1 Corinthians 14:8)

Having prepared the pronunciation, one will study enough of the structure, grammatical rules and vocabularies.  One will consider the elements of a sentence one after another so as to put them together and express your message in sufficient detail.  This forms a sound basis for you to construct meaningful conversations, adding additional vocabulary yourself, as and when necessary.  (Zechariah 4:10)

To master the full extent of the language, you can go on to study our full course.

 

LIST OF CONTENTS

Click on the links:

General Notes

Audio Files

Pronunciation of Roman Characters

Romanized Script System

Phonetic Representation

Author’s Letter

Sentence Structure Made Easy

Your First Conversations

Basic Grammar Syllabus

GRAMMARS

EXERCISES

DETAILS

Grammar 1

Exercise 1

Doers (nouns and pronouns)

Grammar 2

Exercise 2

Process done (verb)—a simple past, present and future tense

Grammar 3

Exercise 3

Object forms of nouns and pronouns according to ‘case’

Grammar 4

Exercise 4

Quality describing doers and objects (adjectives, possessive pronouns, etc.)

Grammar 5

Exercise 5

Manner describing process done (adverbs)

Grammar 6

Exercise 6

Connectives linking to another clause

Grammar 7

Exercise 7

Conditional sentences

Grammar 8

Exercise 8

Interrogatives, correlatives and relatives

Grammar 9

Exercise 9

Other forms of expression common or without equivalent

Grammar 10

Exercise 10

Add other features


GENERAL NOTES
1. Note that throughout this course ‘YOU’ means the plural of ‘you’.
2. Note that English pronouns underlined are equivalent to the honorific form in Bengali.
3. Bengali letters underlined represent the ‘cerebral’ sound, not the ‘dental’ family.
4. In these Bengali spellings ‘_’ indicates that the adjacent letters get brought together as one syllable.
5. In these Bengali spellings ‘-’ indicates that the adjacent letters are in different syllables.

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AUDIO FILES TO GUIDE PRONUNCIATION

1.   Sounds can be played by clicking on the hyperlinks in the table.  These call audio files on the website.

2.   The sounds can be all be downloaded.  If necessary, follow the instructions given at this link, downloadsounds.htm.

3.   When you want to learn the Bengali script, other helps are provided using audio files, such as the sound charts and other pronunciation routines.

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PRONUNCIATION OF ROMAN CHARACTERS

Vowels

PRONUNCIATION OF VOWELS

ROMAN
CHARACTERS

ENGLISH
SOUND

AS IN THE ENGLISH WORD

AFTER A CONSONANT (e.g. after “k ”)

“ ` ”
(no vowel)

(no vowel)

(no sound after ‘k’ in “black_”)

k`

a

short “a”

very short “o”

(hints: ~“å”)

“wander”
(inherent a)

off” (inherent a)

ka
(~“”)

aa

long “a”

“far”

kaa

a , a, yaa

flat “a

apple”

ka
(~“kyaa”)

 i

short “i”

“pill”

ki

ii

long “i”,
long “ee”

“pip”, “peel”

kii

u

short “u”

“pull”

ku

uu

long “u”
long “oo”

“pool”

kuu

rri

short “ri”

“dribble”

krri

e

short “e”

“pegging”

ke

ee

long “oi”
(diphthong for long “ee”)

“point”

kee
(~“koi”)

o

medium “o”

“pond”

ko

oo

long “o”,
“ou”, “ow”

“poke”, “pole”, “pound”, “power”

koo
(~“kou”),
(~“kau/kow”)

nasal “ng”,
but no “g”

“singer”

kan°
(“kang”)

hha

abrupt “h”

“Judah had”

kahh
(~“kåhh”)

^

faint nasal “n” as in French

“Non, ton son est bon

ka^
(~“kan”)

Consonants

Note that the sounds whose Romanization contains “-h” must be breathed.  So, “kh” is like “ka” but breathed.  (There is nothing similar in English.)

PRONUNCIATION OF CONSONANTS

PHYSICAL CLASS

ROMAN
CHARACTERS

ENGLISH
SOUND

AS IN THE ENGLISH WORD

Guttural
-in the throat

k

k

keen

kh

kh

rockhead

g

g

got

gh

gh

slagheap

n

donkey

Palatal
- on the palate

c
(hints: “tch”)

ch

chair

ch
(hints: ~“tchh”)

tchh

matchhead

j

j

enjoy

jh

dgeh

hedgehog

n

enjoy, pinch

Cerebral
or Retroflexive
- with the tongue bent back on the roof of the mouth

t / t³

t

alter

th / t³h

th

malthouse

d / d³

d

holder

r / r³ (rolled)

r , rr

millrun, barrel

dh / d³h

dh

goldhammer

rh / r³h (rolled)

rrh

myrrh lump

n or

n

inlaid

Dental
- on the teeth

t

t

panting

th

th

anthill

d

d

beds

dh

dh

bedheads

n

n

bending

Labial
- on the lips

p

p

peace

ph

ph

uphold

b
(or v, w)

b
( w )
( v )

bob
(twin)
(advise)

bh

bh

nibholder

m

m

mop

Forward
- Semi-Vowels

y
(hints: ~“j”)

j

jog

y

y

yes

r (rolled)

r

red

l

l

led

Sibilants

sh

sh

dishes

s
(hints: ~“sh”)

sh

rashly

s
(hints: ~“sh”)

sh
s

washroom
ensure,

s before t, th, p, ph

s

stop

Semi-guttural
- Semi-Vowel

h

h

happy

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ROMANIZED SCRIPT SYSTEM

The Romanized form is a script system in which each Bengali letter is matched accurately and uniquely by a character (or a group) taken from the Roman alphabet.  Many of these sound nearly the same as the normal sound of the Bengali character.  However, some Bengali characters are sometimes pronounced differently from normal.  In these cases we provide phonetic hints like “(~shaak’kå)”.

A further great benefit of this Romanization method is its conformity of use in all the aids that we provide that we provide for other Sanskrit-based languages.  So you can easily adapt to these scripts and languages.  Some students have learned the Bengali script with the help of the Romanized script in less than two days. 

It also conforms with the  Romanized typing method available with Jaspell's free Jaldi Multilingual  Word Processor Software Package.

[Go to Audio Files]  [Go to Pronunciation]
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PHONETIC REPRESENTATION

To begin with you may feel that you would prefer to read the simplest representation of the approximate sound of the Bengali.  That is fine, if we are only learning some set phrases off by heart.  However, a language like Bengali is more complicated because of its numerous, variable sounds and letters.

If you want to spell correctly so as to write Bengali, you will need a more accurate system of writing.  It is necessary in order to progress and to recognize or construct other sentences in different, unexpected circumstances.

In essence, the Bengali alphabet has far more sounds than the number of characters in the Roman alphabet.  The language cannot be written sufficiently accurately purely in a phonetic form, because more than one Bengali letter can have the same sound.  You cannot tell consistently what letters are being represented.  Some students might write the example of “witness” approximately as “shako”.  However, there are three different letters that can be pronounced like (~“sha”), and several letters or groups of letters that can be pronounced like (~“ka” or ~“kka”).  If the pronounciation differs greatly from the normal way, we show more exact phonetic suggestions, such as (~“shaak’kå”).

Instead of attempting to replace the Bengali script merely with an approximate phonetic representation, we use a well-established alternative Romanized Script accompanied by audio files.  These will help you learn the relationship between the sounds, the Bengali characters, and their equivalent Romanized characters.

If you wish, you can adapt better to the Romanization of the Bengali sounds by reading the letter below from the author.  Also, you can click on Contact Us! at www.jaspell.co.uk.

[Go to Author’s letter]  [Go to Pronunciation]  [Go to Contents]


LETTER FROM THE AUTHOR

Dear Student of Bengali,

You may be puzzled about how we have used Roman characters to represent Bengali sounds.

The number of Roman characters is far less than the number of characters in the Bengali alphabet.  Therefore, some of these are represented by a combination of Roman characters.

European languages pronounce some of the Roman characters in several different ways.  Our Romanized Bengali may use them in yet another way.

Note that in French you may write the sound of “verre” also as “ver”, “vers”, “vert”, “verts”, or “vair”.  Moreover, “v” is pronounced differently in German than these other languages.  In English, a letter may be pronounced in numerous ways.

In Italian “c” is pronounced differently in “ca” than in “ce”.  When we learn Chinese Mandarin using its Romanized form, Pinyin, we find “c” sounds like “ts”.  Enjoy reading Zulu, in which “c” is clicked on the palate!  So, we just try to adapt to any new ways of pronouncing these Roman characters.

Anyhow, any mysteries here should not inhibit you for very long, if you use the sound files and other pronunciation aids we have provided you.  Some have learned this way to read Bengali within two days.  The same representation of the Classification of Sounds can be applied equally to many related languages from North India and Nepal.

With best wishes,

The Author

 

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SENTENCE STRUCTURE

This is the key to constructing simple sentences.

(A) Picture someone or something
(B) Decide what action is being done (placed last in Bengali)
(C) Add an ‘object’, if someone or something is affected by the action
(D) Describe the doer
(E) Describe the object
(F) Describe the action
(G) You can use your sentence as a clause, and connect it to another one.

For example, you can build up a sentence to say some or all of the following information.

This little message joyfully tells everyone good news to us all, and …

A

(This)
message

B

message

tells

C

message

news

tells

D

This little

message

news

tells

E

This little

message

good

news

tells

F

This little

message

good

news

joyfully

tells

G

This little

message

good

news

joyfully

tells

and ...

 

Quality

DOER

Quality

OBJECT

Manner

PROCESS

LINK

 4.

 1.

 4.

 3.

 5.

 2.

 6.

 

A: Someone or something

 

(The) message

 

 

 

 

 

 

san°baad

 

 

 

 

 

 

B: + action

 

(The) message

 

 

 

tells.

 

 

san°baad

 

 

 

bale.

 

 

C: + add an object

 

(The) message

 

news

 

tells.

 

san°baad

 

khabar

bale.

 

 

D: + describe the doer

This little

message

 

news

 

tells.

 

ei chota

san°baad

 

khabar

 

bale.

 

 

E: + describe the object

This little

message

good

news

 

tells.

 

ei chota

san°baad

bhaalo

khabar

bale.

 

 

F: + describe the action

This little

message

good

news

joyfully

tells.

 

ei chota

san°baad

bhaalo

khabar

aanande

bale.

 

 

G: + link this clause to another clause

This little

message

good

news

joyfully

tells,

and

ei chota

san°baad

bhaalo

khabar

aanande

bale,

eban°

There can be a direct object and an indirect object.  Sometimes the ‘object’ section of the sentence has two parts, such as when someone gives someone (direct) something (indirect).  The ‘direct’ part usually precedes the ‘indirect’ part.

This little message joyfully tells good news to all.

This little

message

 

to all

good

news

joyfully

tells.

ei chota

san°baad

 

sakal-ke

bhaalo

khabar

aanande

bale.


This little message joyfully tells good news to us all.

This little

message

us / our

to all

good

news

joyfully

tells.

ei chota

san°baad

aamaader

sakal-ke

bhaalo

khabar

aanande

bale.

A conditional sentence is made of two of these groups (‘clauses’).  Start one with “yadi” (If ) and the other with the link “tabe” (then).  Most Bengalis prefer to put “yadi” just after the doer.

If the news is good, then the message is good.

news

if

good

[is]

then

message

good

[is]

khabar

yadi

bhaalo

[ ]

tabe

san°baad

bhaalo

[ ].

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YOUR FIRST CONVERSATIONS

Discover how to build simple sentences using the building blocks provided.

Example 1

You *

aapani (~“aapåni”)

You are

aapani aachen

how?

keman? (~“kemån”)

* See General Notes

 

How are you?

 

 

 

You

 

how

 

are?

 

 

 

 

 

aapani

 

keman

 

aachen?

 

 

aapani keman aachen?

Example 2

I

aami

I am

aami aachi

fine, O.K., well

bhaalo

Thanks

dhanyabaad (~“dhån’nåbaad”)

 

I’m fine, thanks.

 

 

 

I

 

fine

 

am.

 

 

 

 

 

aami

 

bhaalo

 

aachi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thanks

 

[to you]

 

[be]

 

 

 

 

 

dhanya-baad

 

[ ]

 

[ ]

 

 

aami bhaalo aachi, dhanyabaad.

Example 3

[You] read!

[aapani] parun! (~“pårdun”)

message

san°baad (~“sångbaad”)

this

ei

kindness

dayaa (~“dåyaa”)

done

kare (~“kåre”)

please, kindly

dayaa kare

 

Read this message, please!

 

 

 

[You]

this

message

kindly

read.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[aapani]

 

 

 

parun!

 

 

 

 

 

[aapani]

 

san°baad

 

parun!

 

 

 

 

 

[aapani]

ei

san°baad

 

parun!

 

 

 

 

 

[aapani]

ei

san°baad

dayaa kare

parun!

 

 

ei san°baad dayaa kare parun!

Example 4

it [that]

taa

it is

taa aache

what?

kii?

 

What is it?

 

 

 

It

 

what

 

[is]?

 

 

 

 

 

taa

 

kii

 

[aache]?

 

 

taa kii aache?

Example 5

-’s, of

-’r, -er

my

aamaar

name

naam

I say / tell

aami bali (~“båli”)

 

I say my name. (Or, ‘Let me say my name.’)

 

 

 

I

my

name

 

say.

 

 

 

 

 

aami

 

 

 

bali

 

 

 

 

 

aami

 

naam

 

bali

 

 

 

 

 

aami

aamaar

naam

 

bali

 

 

aami aamaar naam bali.

Example 6

he

se

he says / tells

se bale

not, “No”

naa

his

taar

his own

taar nij

 

He does not say his own message.

 

 

 

He

his (own)

message

 

says not.

 

 

 

 

 

se

 

 

 

bale

 

 

 

 

 

se

 

 

 

bale naa.

 

 

 

 

 

se

 

san°baad

 

bale naa.

 

 

 

 

 

se

taar

san°baad

 

bale naa.

 

 

 

 

 

se

taar (nij)

san°baad

 

bale naa.

 

 

se taar nij san°baad bale naa.

Example 7

you give

aapani den

your

aapanaar

invitation

nimantran

little

chota, chotta (~“chhotå”)

“Yes”

haa^ (~“haang”),
hyaa^, ha^ (~“heng”)

 

Yes, you give your little invitation.

Yes,

 

 

You

your little

invitation

 

give

 

 

 

 

 

aapani

 

 

 

den

 

 

 

 

 

aapani

 

nimantran

 

den

 

 

 

 

 

aapani

aapanaar

nimantran

 

den

 

 

 

 

 

aapani

aapanaar chota

nimantran

 

den

 

 

haa^

 

 

aapani

aapanaar chota

nimantran

 

den

 

 

haa^, aapani aapanaar chota nimantran den.

Example 8

He

tini

He says / tells

tini balen

his

taa^r

 

He says his own name.

 

 

 

He

his own

name

 

says.

 

 

 

 

 

tini

 

 

 

balen.

 

 

 

 

 

tini

 

naam

 

balen.

 

 

 

 

 

tini

taa^r

naam

 

balen.

 

 

 

 

 

tini

taa^r nij

naam

 

balen.

 

 

tini taa^r nij naam balen.

Example 9

we

aamaraa

we say / we tell

aamaraa bali

faith

bishvaas (~“bish’shaash”)

-s’, of

-der

our

aamaader

and …

eban° … (~“ebång”), aar

 

We say our faith, and …

 

 

 

We

our

faith

 

say.

and …

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

 

 

bali

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

bishvaas

 

bali

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

aamaa-der

bishvaas

 

bali

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

aamaa-der

bishvaas

 

bali

eban° …

 

aamaraa aamaader bishvaas bali, eban°…

Example 10

they

taaraa

they take

taaraa ney

they take

taa^raa nen

their

taader

 

They take their invitation.

 

 

They

their

invitation

 

take.

 

 

 

 

 

taaraa

 

 

 

ney.

 

 

 

 

 

taaraa

 

nimantran

 

ney.

 

 

 

 

 

taaraa

taader

nimantran

 

ney.

 

 

taaraa taader nimantran ney.

Example 11

YOU

aapanaaraa

YOU say / tell / speak

aapanaaraa balen (~“bålen”)

news

khabar

very

khub

 

YOU speak very good news.

 

 

 

YOU

very good

news

 

say.

 

 

 

 

 

aapanaaraa

 

 

 

balen.

 

 

 

 

 

aapanaaraa

 

khabar

 

balen.

 

 

 

 

 

aapanaaraa

bhaalo

khabar

 

balen.

 

 

 

 

 

aapanaaraa

khub bhaalo

khabar

 

balen.

 

 

aapanaaraa khub bhaalo khabar balen.

Example 12

man

maanus

(the) man does

maanus kare

work

kaaj

he works / he does work

se kaaj kare

 

[The] man does good work

 

 

 

(The) man

good

work

 

does,

 

 

 

 

maanus

 

 

 

kare

 

 

 

 

 

maanus

 

kaaj

 

kare

 

 

 

 

 

maanus

bhaalo

kaaj

 

kare

 

 

maanus bhaalo kaaj kare

Example 13

if

yadi (~“jådi”)

only

maatra (~“maatrå”)

then

tabe (~“tåbe”)

 

If a good man only does good work, then …

 

If

[a] good

man

good

work

only

does,

 

 

 

 

maanus

 

 

 

kare

 

 

 

 

 

maanus

 

kaaj

 

kare

 

 

 

 

bhaalo

maanus

 

kaaj

 

kare

 

 

 

 

bhaalo

maanus

bhaalo

kaaj

 

kare

 

 

 

 

bhaalo

maanus

bhaalo

kaaj

maatra

kare

 

 

 

yadi

bhaalo

maanus

bhaalo

kaaj

maatra

kare,

 

 

yadi

bhaalo

maanus

bhaalo

kaaj

maatra

kare,

tabe

yadi bhaalo maanus maatra bhaalo kaaj kare, tabe …

Example 14

who?

ke?

bad

khaaraap

now

ekhan (~“ekhån”)

 

… then who does this bad work now?

 

… then

 

who

this bad

work

now

does?

 

 

 

 

 

ke

 

 

 

kare?

 

 

 

 

 

ke

 

kaaj

 

kare?

 

 

 

 

 

ke

ei

kaaj

 

kare?

 

 

 

 

 

ke

ei khaaraap

kaaj

 

kare?

 

 

 

 

 

ke

ei khaaraap

kaaj

ekhan

kare?

 

 

 

… tabe

 

ke

ei khaaraap

kaaj

ekhan

kare?

 

 

… tabe ke ei khaaraap kaaj ekhan kare?

Example 15

whether, is it so?

ki?

you know

aapani jaanen

question

prashna (~“pråshnå”)

of the question, question’s

prashner

answer

uttar (~“uttår”)

answer to the question

prashner uttar

 

Do you know the answer of the question?

 

 

 

You

 question’s

answer

whether

know?

 

 

 

 

 

aapani

 

 

 

jaanen

 

 

 

 

 

aapani

 

uttar

 

jaanen

 

 

 

 

 

aapani

uttar

ki

jaanen?

 

 

 

 

 

aapani

prashner

uttar

ki

jaanen?

 

 

aapani ki prashner uttar jaanen?

Example 16

explanation

byaakhyaa (~“bek’kaa”)

to explain

byaakhyaa karaa

doing

kar-te (~“kår-te”)

to be able, can

paaraa

we can do

aamaraa kar-te paari

 

We can explain

 

 

 

We

 

 

explanation

making | can

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

 

 

paari

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

 

 

kar-te | paari

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

 

byaakhyaa

kar-te | paari

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

 

byaakhyaa

kar-te | paari

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

 

byaakhyaa

kar-te | paari

 

 

aamaraa byaakhyaa kar-te paari.

Example 17

to …

…-ke

to you

aapanaake

(the) truth

satya (~“shåt’tå”)

 

We can explain it to you.

 

 

 

We

 

to you

 

it

explanation

making | can

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

 

 

 

 

paari

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

 

 

 

 

kar-te | paari

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

 

 

 

byaakhyaa

kar-te | paari

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

 

 

taa

byaakhyaa

kar-te | paari

 

 

 

 

 

aamaraa

 

aapanaake

 

taa

byaakhyaa

kar-te | paari

 

 

aamaraa aapanaake taa byaakhyaa kar-te paari.

Moving Forward

You can extend these conversations.  Choose additional words from the vocabularies and use the grammar explanations in the following Basic Language Syllabus.

[Go to Start of First Conversations]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]


INTRODUCTION TO THE BASIC GRAMMAR SYLLABUS

This basic course will cover the main features of the Bengali language. If you understand sentence structure you should be able to achieve quickly a system of communication that is simplified but adaptable and effective.  A fully detailed course can be studied later in harmony with these basic but sound beginnings.

This basic language syllabus addresses each of the 10 elements of sentences described in “Sentence Structure Made Easy”.  They are presented in the logical order in which you add them to build up sentences.

SYLLABUS

Grammar Section

Exercise

Grammar Subject

Grammar 1

Exercise 1

Doers (nouns and pronouns)

Grammar 2

Exercise 2

Process done (verb) — a simple past, present and future tense

Grammar 3

Exercise 3

Object forms of nouns and pronouns according to ‘case’

Grammar 4

Exercise 4

Quality describing doers and objects (adjectives, possessive pronouns, etc.)

Grammar 5

Exercise 5

Manner describing process done (adverb)

Grammar 6

Exercise 6

Connectives linking to another clause

Grammar 7

Exercise 7

Conditional sentences

Grammar 8

Exercise 8

Interrogatives, correlatives and relatives

Grammar 9

Exercise 9

Other forms of expression common or without equivalent

Grammar 10

Exercise 10

Add other features

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GRAMMAR 1.  DOERS (NOUNS AND PRONOUNS)

1.1 Introduction to Nouns and Pronouns
1.2
Omission of the verb “to be” if “Aaaa is Bbbb”
1.3
Personal Pronouns
1.4
Vocabulary – Nouns and Pronouns
1.4.1
Vocabulary – Persons
       – 1.4.1.1 Family;
       – 1.4.1.2 Non-family
1.4.2
Vocabulary – Questions and Answers
1.4.3
Vocabulary – Animals
1.4.4
Vocabulary – Things
1.4.5
Vocabulary – Concepts
1.4.6
Vocabulary – States
1.4.7
Vocabulary – Activities
1.4.8
Vocabulary – Time
1.5
Nouns and Pronouns: Full List – English to Bengali
1.6
Nouns and Pronouns: Full List – Bengali to English

[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

GRAMMAR 1.1:  Introduction to Nouns and Pronouns

The person or thing that is doing something is represented by a noun or a pronouns.  A noun names the doer.  A pronoun is a short word that can be used in place of the noun.

A few nouns are listed below. You can learn more from the attached vocabularies or lists of frequently used words, and dictionaries. Pronouns are also listed here.

The listed form is for the doer (subject, nominative case) in the clause.

e.g. He said to me that  I should tell him.

The form of the nouns and pronouns listed here may be modified in various ways, if they occur as the object.  See the later consideration of “Forms of Nouns and Pronouns As Objects According to ‘Case’”. [ Grammar Section 3 ]

e.g. He said to me that I should tell him.

[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

GRAMMAR 1.2:  Omission of the verb “to be” if “Aaaa is Bbbb”

If the sentence expresses “Aaaa” is “Bbbb”, both “Aaaa” and “Bbbb” are in the unmodified subject nominative form. The doing word (verb) ‘to be’ can be omitted. Even if “Aaaa” is plural, “Bbbb” can be singular.

Examples:-

Today [ is ] Sunday.

aaj-ke [ ] rabi-baar.

We [ are ] parents.

aamaraa [ ] pitaamaataa.

God [ is ] love.

iishvar [ ] prem.

They [ are ] friends.

taaraa [ ] bandhu.

Practice
Translate:-

We [ are ] friends.

                  

aamaraa [ ] bandhu.

aaj-ke [ ] rabi-baar.

 

Today [ is ] Sunday.

They [ are ] parents.

 

taaraa [ ] pitaamaataa.

aamaraa [ ] pitaamaataa.

 

We [ are ] parents.

God [ is ] love.

 

iishvar [ ] prem.

taaraa [ ] bandhu.

 

They [ are ] friends.

[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

GRAMMAR 1.3: Personal Pronouns

Singular

 

Plural

Common

I

aami

 

we

aamaraa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

you

tumi

 

YOU

tomaraa

he,
she

se

 

they

taaraa

it

taa

 

they

taaraa

 

Honorific

you

aapani

 

YOU

aapanaaraa

he,
she

tini

 

they

taa^raa

The above are the short colloquial (‘Chalito’) forms.  The classical (‘Sadhu’) forms are longer, as follows-:

Short / Chalito Form

 

(Long / Sadhu Form)

taa

(taahaa)

taa^

(taa^haa)

taaraa

(taahaaraa)

taa^raa

(taa^haaraa)

Practice
Translate:-

You [ are a] friend.

                  

aapani [ ] bandhu.

taa [ ] rabi-baar.

 

it* [ is ] Sunday.

They [ are ] parents.

 

taa^raa [ ] pitaamaataa.

aapanaaraa [ ] pitaamaataa.

 

YOU [ are ] parents.

He [ is ] love.

 

tini [ ] prem.

aami [ ] bandhu.

 

I [am a] friend.

* Or “that”

Do Exercises 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

GRAMMAR 1.4: Vocabulary – Nouns and Pronouns by Category

These are some useful words to learn — nouns and pronouns.  These can be used for ‘Doers’ and for ‘Objects’

Some of the words shown below are used in this short course.  The others can be used as you widen your conversations.

You will find a series of small vocabularies by category (Grammar 1.4.1Grammar 1.4.8) followed by two combined versions.  One is from English into Bengali (Grammar 1.5) and one from Bengali into English (Grammar 1.6).

Grammar 1.4.1: Vocabulary – Persons

Grammar 1.4.1.1: Persons in the Family

boy, son

 

chele, putra

brother

 

bhaai

brother and sister

 

bhaaibon

children

 

chelemeye

daughter, girl

 

meye

family

 

paribaar

father

 

pitaa, baabaa

husband

 

swaamii (~“shaamii”)

husband and wife

 

swaam’strii

Jehovah

 

yihobaa (~“jihobaa”)

Jesus

 

yiishu (~“jiishu”) / iisaa

mother

 

maataa, maa

parents

 

pitaamaataa

sister

 

bon

son, boy

 

chele, putra

who

 

ye (~“je”)

who?

 

ke?

WHO (plural)

 

yaaraa(~“jaaraa”)

WHO? (plural)

 

kaaraa?

wife, woman

 

strii

Practice 1.4.1.1
Translate:-

WHO [are] the children?

                  

chelemeye kaaraa [ ]?

yihobaa ke [ ]?

 

Who is Jehovah?

The brother [and] sister

 

bhaaibon

taaraa bandhu [ ].

 

They [are] friends.

Jehovah [is] love.

 

yihobaa prem [ ].

taa^raa paribaar [ ].

 

They [are] family.

Who [are] you?

 

aapani ke [ ]?

 

Grammar 1.4.1.2: Persons – Not in the Family

anyone, someone

 

keha / keu

Bengali person

 

baan¹gaalii

-doer

 

-kaarii

English person

 

in°rej

-er

 

-kaarii

friend

 

bandhu (~“båndhu”)

God (general Bengali)

 

iishvar (~“iish'shår”)

God (from Urdu)

 

khodaa

God’s

 

iishvarer, khodaar

individual, person

 

byakti (~“bekti”) / vyakti

leader

 

netaa

man

 

maanus

person, people

 

lok

person, individual

 

byakti (~“bekti”) / vyakti

plural ending “-s” (persons)

 

-eraa / -raa

Satan

 

shayataan

someone, anyone

 

keu / keha

terroriser

 

santraas-kaarii

witness

 

saaksii (~“sciàac’chii”)

woman, wife

 

strii (~“shaamii”)

worker

 

karma-kaarii

Practice 1.4.1.2
Translate:-

Someone[is the] leader.

              

keha neta [ ].

yiishu karma-kaarii [ ].

 

Jesus [is a] worker.

They [ are ] Bengalis.

 

taaraa baan¹gaalii [ ].

maanus in°rej [ ].

 

The man [is] an Englishman.

He [is] one who loves.

 

tini prem-kaarii [ ].

shayataan santraas-kaarii [ ].

 

Satan [is a] terroriser.

iishvarer paribaar

 

God’s family

Jesus [is] God’s Son.

 

yiishu iishvarer putra [ ].

We [are] Jehovah’s Witnesses

 

aamaraa yihobaar saaksii [ ].

[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

Grammar 1.4.2: Vocabulary – Questions and Answers

Grammar 1.4.2.1: Questions and Answers - Arrangements

answer

 

uttar

Bible

 

baaibel

book

 

bai (~“boy”), kitaab

chapter

 

adhyaay (~“åd-dhaay”)

magazine

 

patrikaa

meeting

 

sabhaa (~“shåbhaa”)

message

 

san°baad (~“shång-baad”)

name

 

naam

problem

 

samasyaa
(~“shåmåsh'shaa”)

proof, evidence

 

pramaan

question

 

prashna

return visit

 

punahha saaksaat`

side of an issue

 

paksa

study

 

adhyayan (~“åd-dhåyån”)

that (thing)

 

ee

these (things)

 

e-gulo / e-guli

saying; word

 

kathaa (~“kåthaa”),
baakya (~“baak'kå”)

this (thing)

 

e

those (things)

 

ee-gulo / ee-guli

verse (in a chapter)

 

pad (~“påd”)

visit

 

saaksaat` (~“shaak'kaat”)

what

 

yaa (~“jaa”)

what (one)?

 

kii?

what ones?

 

kii kii?

whether? is it so?

 

ki?

who

 

ye (~“je”)

who?

 

ke?

WHO (plural)

 

yaaraa

WHO? (plural)

 

kaaraa? (~“jaaraa”)

word spoken

 

baakya (~“baak'kå”),
kathaa (~“kåthaa”)

Practice 1.4.2.1
Translate:-

What [is] that saying?

                  

ee kathaa kii [ ]?

padgulo kii [ ]? /

pad kii kii?

 

What [are] the versess?

What [is] God’s word?

 

iishvarer baakya kii [ ]?

kaaraa bandhu [ ]?

 

WHO [are] friends?

The study [is] today.

 

adhyayan aaj-ke.

[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

Grammar 1.4.2.2: Questions and Answers - Topics

attitude

 

manobhaab

belief

 

bishvaas (~“bish'shaash”)

evidence, proof

 

pramaan

manner, way

 

bhaab

mind

 

man (~“mån”)

purpose

 

uddeshya

religion

 

dharma (~“dhårmå”)

thought

 

man (~“mån”), mat

truth

 

satya (~“shåt'tå”)

will, desire

 

icchaa

world

 

jagat` (~“jågåt”), duniyaa

Practice 1.4.2.2
Translate:-

What [is] the will of God?

                  

iishvarer icchaa kii [ ]?

bishvaas ki satya [ ]?

 

[Is] faith the truth?

[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

Grammar 1.4.3: Vocabulary – Animals

animal

 

pashu

bird

 

paakhi / paksi (~“påk'ki”)

dog

 

kukur

fish

 

maach

Grammar 1.4.4: Vocabulary – Things

article, thing

 

jinis

Bible

 

baaibel

book

 

bai (~“boy”), kitaab

chapter

 

adhyaay (~“åd-dhaay”)

creation

 

srristi

Earth

 

prrithibii

flesh, meat

 

maan°sa

food

 

khaadya, khaabaar

house

 

baarii, ghar, grriha

kingdom

 

raajya

Kingdom Hall

 

kin°dam hal

magazine

 

patrikaa

message

 

san°vaad (~“shång-baad”)

mind

 

man (~“mån”)

mother

 

maataa, maa

name

 

naam

picture

 

chabi (~“chhåbi”)

plural ending “-s” non-persons

 

-gulo / -guli

that (thing)

 

ee

these (things)

 

e-gulo / e-guli

thing, article

 

jinis

this (thing)

 

e

those (things)

 

ee-gulo / ee-guli

tree

 

gaach, brriksa (~“brik'kå”)

verse (in a chapter)

 

pad (~“påd”)

water

 

paani, jal

what

 

yaa (~“jaa”)

what (one)?

 

kii?

what (ones)?

 

kii kii?

world

 

jagat` (~“jågåt”), duniyaa

[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

Grammar 1.4.5: Vocabulary – Concepts

accurate knowledge

 

tatva jnaan
(~“tåt'tå gyaan”)

answer

 

uttar

attitude

 

manobhaab

belief

 

bishvaas (~“bish'shaash”)

benefit

 

laabh, phaa'idaa

Bengali language

 

baan°laa

circumstances, situation

 

paristhiti

condition, state

 

abasthaa / avasthaa
(~“åbåsthaa”)

desire, will

 

icchaa

direction, way

 

dik` / dig`, taraph

encouragement

 

ut`saaha

English language

 

in°rejii

evidence, proof

 

pramaan

faith

 

bishvaas (~“bish'shaash”)

freedom

 

mukti

happiness

 

sukh, aananda

hatred

 

ghrrinaa

help

 

saahaayya (~“shaahaaj'jå”)

hope

 

aashaa

kindness

 

dayaa (~“dåyaa”)

knowledge

 

jnaan (~“gyaan”)

lack, shortage

 

abhaab (~“åbhaab”)

life

 

jiiban

love

 

prem, bhaalabaasaa

manner, way

 

bhaab

mental spirit

 

man (~“mån”)

mind

 

man (~“mån”)

problem

 

samasyaa
(~“shåmåsh'shaa”)

proof, evidence

 

pramaan

purpose

 

uddeshya

religion

 

dharma (~“dhårmå”)

rescue, survival

 

raksaa

righteousness

 

dhaarmikataa

salvation

 

paritraan

shortage, lack

 

abhaab (~“åbhaab”)

side of an issue

 

paksa

terrorism

 

santraas (~“shåntraash”)

saying; word

 

kathaa (~“kåthaa”),
baakya (~“baak'kå”)

thought

 

man (~“mån”), mat

truth

 

satya (~“shåt'tå”)

way (direction)

 

dik`/ dig`, taraph

way (manner)

 

man (~“mån”), bhaab

wickedness

 

dustataa

will, desire

 

icchaa

word spoken

 

baakya (~“baak'kå”),
kathaa (~“kåthaa”)

[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

Grammar 1.4.6: Vocabulary – States

benefit

 

laabh, phaa'idaa

circumstances, situation

 

paristhiti

condition, state

 

abasthaa / avasthaa
(~“åbåsthaa”)

destruction

 

dhvan°sa (~“d'dhång-så”)

disturbance

 

ashaanti (~“åshaanti”)

encouragement

 

ut`saaha

freedom

 

mukti

happiness

 

sukh, aananda

hatred

 

ghrrinaa

hope

 

aashaa

kindness

 

dayaa (~“dåyaa”)

kingdom

 

raajya

lack, shortage

 

abhaab (~“åbhaab”)

last days

 

shes kaal

life

 

jiiban

manner, way

 

bhaab

peace

 

shaanti

problem

 

samasyaa
(~“shåmåsh'shaa”)

proof, evidence

 

pramaan

purpose

 

uddeshya

rescue, survival

 

raksaa

righteousness

 

dhaarmikataa

salvation

 

paritraan

shortage, lack

 

abhaab (~“åbhaab”)

side of an issue

 

paksa

situation, circumstances

 

paristhiti

state, condition

 

abasthaa / avasthaa

survival, rescue

 

raksaa

terrorism

 

santraas (~“shåntraash”)

violence

 

dooraatmya (~“douraat'tå”),
hin°saa

war

 

yuddha (~“jud'dhå”)

wickedness

 

dustataa

[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

Grammar 1.4.7: Vocabulary – Activities

answer

 

uttar

Bengali language

 

baan°laa

creation

 

srristi

crime

 

aparaadh (~“åpåraadh”)

desire, will

 

icchaa

destruction

 

dhvan°sa (~“d'dhång-så”)

to do

 

karaa (~“kåraa”)

-doer

 

-kaarii

doing

 

kar-te (~“kår-te”)

encouragement

 

ut`saaha

English language

 

in°rejii

-er

 

-kaarii

faith

 

bishvaas (~“bish'shaash”)

hatred

 

ghrrinaa

help

 

saahaayya (~“shaahaaj'jå”)

hope

 

aashaa

...ing / verbal: e.g. doing---

 

---kar-te (~“kår-te”)

...ing / verbal: e.g. seeing---

 

---dekh-te

kindness

 

dayaa (~“dåyaa”)

kingdom

 

raajya

love

 

prem, bhaalabaasaa

meeting

 

sabhaa (~“shåbhaa”)

proof, evidence

 

pramaan

question

 

prashna

rescue, survival

 

raksaa

return visit

 

punahha saaksaat`

study

 

adhyayan (~“åd-dhåyån”)

survival, rescue

 

raksaa

terrorism

 

santraas (~“shåntraash”)

to ... / verbal: e.g. to do---

 

---karaa (~“kåraa”)

to ... / verbal: e.g. to see---

 

---dekhaa

violence

 

dooraatmya (~“douraat'tå”),
hin°saa

visit

 

saaksaat` (~“shaak'kaat”)

war

 

yuddha (~“jud'dhå”)

way (manner)

 

man (~“mån”), bhaab

wickedness

 

dustataa

will, desire

 

icchaa

witness (activity)

 

saaksa (~“shaak'kå”)

work

 

kaaj, kaam,
karma (~“kårmå”)

[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

Grammar 1.4.8: Vocabulary – Time

day

 

din

day 1 : Monday

 

som-baar

day 2: Tuesday

 

man¹gal-baar

day 3: Wednesday

 

budh-baar

day 4: Thursday

 

brrihaspatibaar

day 5: Friday

 

shukrabaar

day 6: Saturday

 

shanibaar

day 7 : Sunday

 

rabi-baar / ravi-vaar

future

 

bhavisyat` (~“bhåbish'shåt”)

last days

 

shes kaal

time (measure)

 

samay (~“shåmoi”)

time (period, era)

 

kaal

today

 

aaj-ke

tomorrow

 

aagaamii kaal

week

 

saptaa (~“shåptaa”)

year ( in a date)

 

saal (~“shaal”)

year ( the period)

 

bat`sar (~“båt-sår”)

yesterday

 

gata kaal (~“gåtå kaal”)

[Go to Grammar 1]  [Go to Top]  [Go to Contents]

GRAMMAR 1.5: Nouns and Pronouns: Full List – English to Bengali

[Go to Full List – Bengali to English Nouns and Pronouns]

tomorrow

 

aagaamii kaal

today

 

aaj-ke

hope

 

aashaa

state, condition

 

abasthaa / avasthaa

condition, state

 

abasthaa / avasthaa
(~“åbåsthaa”)

lack, shortage

 

abhaab (~“åbhaab”)

shortage, lack

 

abhaab (~“åbhaab”)

chapter

 

adhyaay (~“åd-dhaay”)

study

 

adhyayan (~“åd-dhåyån”)

crime

 

aparaadh (~“åpåraadh”)

disturbance

 

ashaanti (~“åshaanti”)

Bible

 

baaibel

word spoken

 

baakya (~“baak'kå”),
kathaa (~“kåthaa”)

Bengali language

 

baan°laa

Bengali person

 

baan¹gaalii

house

 

baarii, ghar, grriha

book

 

bai (~“boy”), kitaab

friend

 

bandhu (~“båndhu”)

year ( the period)

 

bat`sar (~“båt-sår”)

manner, way

 

bhaab

brother

 

bhaai

future

 

bhavisyat` (~“bhåbish'shåt”)

belief

 

bishvaas (~“bish'shaash”)

faith

 

bishvaas (~“bish'shaash”)

sister

 

bon

day 4: Thursday

 

brrihaspatibaar

day 3: Wednesday

 

budh-baar

individual, person

 

byakti (~“bekti”) / vyakti

person, individual

 

byakti (~“bekti”) / vyakti

picture

 

chabi (~“chhåbi”)

boy, son

 

chele, putra

son, boy

 

chele, putra

kindness

 

dayaa (~“dåyaa”)

to ... / verbal: e.g. to see---

 

---dekhaa

...ing / verbal: e.g. seeing---

 

---dekh-te

righteousness

 

dhaarmikataa

religion

 

dharma (~“dhårmå”)

destruction

 

dhvan°sa (~“d'dhång-så”)

direction, way

 

dik` / dig`, taraph

way (direction)

 

dik`/ dig`, taraph

day

 

din

violence

 

dooraatmya (~“douraat'tå”),
hin°saa

wickedness

 

dustataa

this (thing)

 

e

that (thing)

 

ee

those (things)

 

ee-gulo / ee-guli

these (things)

 

e-gulo / e-guli

plural ending “-s” (persons)

 

-eraa / -raa

tree

 

gaach, brriksa (~“brik'kå”)

yesterday

 

gata kaal (~“gåtå kaal”)

hatred

 

ghrrinaa

plural ending “-s” non-persons

 

-gulo / -guli

desire, will

 

icchaa

will, desire

 

icchaa

God (general Bengali)

 

iishvar (~“iish'shår”)

God’s

 

iishvarer, khodaar

English person

 

in°rej

English language

 

in°rejii

world

 

jagat` (~“jågåt”), duniyaa

life

 

jiiban

article, thing

 

jinis

thing, article

 

jinis

knowledge

 

jnaan (~“gyaan”)

work

 

kaaj, kaam,
karma (~“kårmå”)

time (period, era)

 

kaal

WHO? (plural)

 

kaaraa? (~“jaaraa”)

-doer

 

-kaarii

-er

 

-kaarii

to do

 

karaa (~“kåraa”)

to ... / verbal: e.g. to do---

 

---karaa (~“kåraa”)

worker

 

karma-kaarii

doing

 

kar-te (~“kår-te”)

...ing / verbal: e.g. doing---

 

---kar-te (~“kår-te”)

saying; word

 

kathaa (~“kåthaa”),
baakya (~“baak'kå”)

who?

 

ke?

anyone, someone

 

keha / keu

someone, anyone

 

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