“Teaching Truth in Bengali”—Contents of the Grammar Studies

Printable List of Contents (.pdf)

 

1.        Study 1 English | Français | Deutsch | Italiano | Português | Español

1.   Greetings

2.   Pronouns in singular

3.   Word Order

4.   Verb endings: Present Tense: Regular

5.   “আছি” “aachi”, etc.

2.        Study 2 English | Français | Deutsch | Italiano | Português | Español

1.   Thanks, this and that, “Bengali” and “English”: language or person

2.   Use of nouns

3.   Use of adjectives

4.   Relaxation of Definite Article, “The”

5.   Word Order

3.        Study 3 English | Français | Deutsch | Italiano | Português | Español

1.   Family members

2.   Specific emphasis: adding “‑ই” “-i”

3.   Word Order

4.        Study 4 English | Français | Deutsch | Italiano | Português | Español

1.   Close relatives

2.   A verb’s “Identifying” Verbal Noun

3.   Verb stems

4.   Common Imperatives: Second Person

5.   Please!

5.        Study 5 English | Français | Italiano | Português | Español

1.   And, again, parting greeting, parents, God, Jehovah

2.   Names

3.   Questioning, Word Order

4.   Possessive Case Singular

6.        Study 6 English | Français | Italiano | Português | Español

1.   Bible, Koran, Yes, No

2.     Present Tense Singular: “করা” “karaa” family

3.     Second Person Present Regular Verb Ending:-
“‑ও /‑অ” “-o /-a”

7.        Study 7 English | Français | Italiano | Português | Español

1.   King, kingdom, preaching, Jesus

2.   Plural Pronouns: Nominative "we", etc.

3.   Plural Pronouns: Possessive: "our", etc.

4.   Verbs in plural

8.        Study 8 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   Learning, faith, prayer, all, many

2.   Nouns in plural: Nominative Case: : use of “‑এরা” “-eraa”

9.        Study 9 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   Verb families

10.   Study 10 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   Blessings, fruit, life, picture

2.   Alternative spellings after character “ref”—“ r` ”

3.   Regular Verbs : Present Tense

11.   Study 11 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   Person, people, meetings, Almighty

2.   Verbs ending in  “‑ওয়া” “oyaa” : Present

12.   Study 12 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   World, violence, destruction, happen, joy, hope

2.   Verbs ending in “‑ানো/‑ান” “‑aano/‑aana”: Present

13.   Study 13 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   truth, spirit, mind

2.   Causative Verbs ending in “‑ানো/‑ান” “‑aano/‑aana”

3.   Use of a Causative Verb in God's name “Jehovah”

14.   Study 14 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   Obligation, Satan, “last days”, sign, opportunity,

2.   mutual, Watchtower, correct

3.   Compound Verbs with the Auxilliary Verb “করা” “karaa”

15.   Study 15 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   Compound Verbs with an Auxilliary Verb other than “করা” “karaa”

16.   Study 16 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   Time periods, days of week, arrangements

2.   During, in, on

17.   Study 17 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   War

2.   The Conjunctive “যে” ye” meaning “That”

18.   Study 18 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   Hand, perfect

2.   “Or else” using “না কি” “naa ki”

19.   Study 19 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   Various, other, near, reason, effect, benefit, deliverance

2.   Plural Possessive of Nouns

20.   Study 20 English | Français | Italiano | Português

1.   Asking More Questions (Interrogatives)

21.   Study 21 English | Français | Português

1.   Particles instead of “the” or “a” express definiteness, favour, or form

§  - For persons generally

§  - For things

§  - Contempt or favour

22.   Study 22 English | Français

1.   Security, hardship, paradise, ransom, salvation, letter, heaven

2.   Declensions of Nouns and Pronouns

3.   Subject, Verb, Predicate, Word Order, 9 “Cases” defined

4.   Declension of Nouns

23.   Study 23 English | Français

1.   Declension of Pronouns

2.   Declension of Nouns

24.   Study 24 English | Français

1.   More Demonstrative Pronouns

25.   Study 25 English | Français

1.   For, before, after, inside, because of, etc.

2.   More Post-Positions

26.   Study 26 English | Français

1.   Future Tense (Chalito Style)

2.   Future Tense (Sadhu Style)

27.   Study 27 English | Français

1.   Personal relatives, neighbour, separate

2.   Gerundives (for Present Participles and Infinitive Nouns)

3.   Formation of Present Participles

4.   Special Forms of Gerundives

28.   Study 28 English | Français

1.   Present Continuous Tense:

§  - Sadhu Long Form

29.   Study 29 English | Français

1.   Present Continuous Tense:

§  - Chalito Short Form

30.   Study 30 English | Français

1.   Studying, way, proof, application, promise, freely

2.   Infinitive Nouns

31.   Study 31 English | Français

1.   Possibly, normally, slowly, amid, change

2.   Adverbial Phrases formed by using a Present Participle

3.   Doubling of Adverbs to indicate continuous activity

32.   Study 32 English | Français

1.   Invisible, sinless, righteous, characteristic, certain, important

2.   Formation of Opposites (Antonyms)

33.   Study 33 English | Français

1.   The conjugation of  “নই, নও, নয়, নন” “nai, nao, nay, nan”—“am not", etc.

2.   “নেই” nei”—“does not exist”, “is not so”

3.   “না” “naa”—“not” when used with verbs except “to be” (present and future tense)

4.   “নি” “ni”—“did not happen” (past tense)

34.   Study 34 English | Français

1.   Past Indefinite Tense—a simple past tense (similar to Past Historic or Preterite Tenses)

2.   Avoiding use of Simple Past form of “থাকা” “thaakaa”

3.   Recounting of past events using the Present Tense

35.   Study 35 English | Français

1.   Simple Past Tense in the negative

36.   Study 36 English | Français

1.   Open Conditional sentences with:

§  “If …” “যদি” yadi …”

§  “If not” “যদি না” yadi naa”

37.   Study 37 English | Français

1.   Miscellaneous vocabulary

2.   Collective plural class form

38.   Study 38 English | Français

1.   Interrogatives, Relative Clauses and Correlative Clauses

39.   Study 39 English | Français

1.   Use of “until” “পর্যন্ত” “paryanta”

2.   Spelling with double -“য” “y” after “ ´ ” “r-” “Ref”

3.   Use of negative in “ while…not”

40.   Study 40 English | Français

1.   Methods of describing the purpose or detail of an action

§  - Gerundive in "for the purpose of doing...”

§  - Possessive of the “Identifying” Verbal Noun

§  - “So as to do…” with “জন্য” “janya”

§  - Possessive Suffix  “‑বার” “-baar”

§  - Various uses of the Possessive Verbal Noun

§  - “So that…” with “যেন”yena”

§  - “lest”, “so that not” - “পাছে” “paache”

§  - Other Expressions Using the “Identifying” Verbal Noun

§  - Other Expressions Using the Present Participle

41.   Study 41 English | Français

1.   Methods of stating the cause of an effect:

§  - Use of a conjunctive

§  - “Since”, “having said”, “given that …”: “…বলে” “… bale” assumption

§  - “In doing …” situation

42.   Study 42 English | Français

1.   Consequences

2.   Miscellaneous vocabulary

43.   Study 43 English | Français

1.   Imperatives (Long and Short Forms):

§  - Three Tense Forms and the emphatic use of “না” “naa”

§  - Present Imperative

§  - Future Imperative in the Second Person

§  - Future Tense

2.   Conflicting uses of  “না” “naa”

3.   Compelling and Forbidding

4.   Hortative Inducement Regarding First or Third Persons

5.   Variations in Spelling

6.   Hortation—“Let it be that” using “যেন” yena”

7.   Possibility—“Whatever…” “যানা কেন” yaa ... naa kena”

44.   Study 44 English | Français

1.     Repeated verbs in responses

45.   Study 45 English | Français

1.     Past (or Perfect) Participles:

§  Sadhu form, Chalito form, exceptions

46.   Study 46 English | Français

1.   Perfect Tenses: past, present, future.

2.   Present Perfect and Past Perfect construction

3.   Colloquial use of “Past Perfect” as a simple past tense

4.   Ways to express a Future Perfect situation

47.   Study 47 English | Français

1.   Past Participle application:

§  - as an adjective

§  - in an adverbial phrase

§  - to make a compound verb

§  - listing a series of actions

48.   Study 48 English | Français

1.   Using the “Identifying” Verbal Noun

49.   Study 49 English | Français

1.   Conditional Participle, “if an action were done”

2.   Parallel conditions in clauses

3.   Negative conditions

50.   Study 50 English | Français

1.   Past Frequentative Tense:

§  - construction, exceptions

§  - simplified expression

§  - “was” ongoing + “থাকা” “thaakaa”

§  - Chalito form

§  - Sadhu form

§  - location of negative

2.   Past Continuous Tense:

§  - stem ending in a consonant

§  - stem ending in a vowel

51.   Study 51 English | Français

1.   One's self, personally, own:

§  - নিজে” nije”, “স্বয়ং” “svayanº”

§  - “আপনি” “aapani”, “আপন” “aapan”

§  - prefices for “self-”

2.   Of oneself, one’s own:-

§  - “নিজের” “nijer”, “নিজ নিজ” “nij nij”, “নিজস্ব” “nijasva”

3.   Prefices for “self-”

§  - “আত্ম-” “aatma-”, “স্বার্থ-” “svaartha-”

4.   Other words used to substitute for nouns:-

§  - “sakal, anya, anek”

§  - adjectives

52.   Study 52 English | Français

1.   Active and Passive Voices using “হওয়া” “haoyaa” or “যাওয়া” yaaoyaa”

53.   Study 53 English | Français

1.   Full list of verb tenses like:-

§  - “করা” “karaa”

§  - “খাওয়া” “khaaoyaa”

§  - “গর্জানো/গর্জান” “garjaano/a”

2.     Second Person Inferior:-

§  - “তুই” “tui”

§  - “তোরা” “toraa”

54.   Study 54 English | Français

[The contents of the large pre-2016 file have been split up.   See new Studies 54 and 59-65]

1.   Idiomatic use of verbs in general

2.   Use of “লাগা” “laagaa” and “লাগানো/লাগান” “laagaano/a”

55.   Study 55 English | Français

1.   Comparative and Superlative:

§  - Adding qualifying words

§  - Modifiable adjectives

56.   Study 56 English | Français

1.   Indication of Gender

2.   Titles, address, letter writing

3.   Family trees before or after marriage

57.   Study 57 English | Français

1.   Cardinal Numbers Zero, One, Two.

2.   Fractions

3.   Ordinal Numbers First, Second...

4.   Approximation

58.   Study 58 English | Français

1.   Months, Seasons, Dates, Clock

59.   Study 59 English | Français

1.     Possessive—To have

2.     “কাছে” “kaache”

60.   Study 60 English | Français

1.     Compulsion—To have to, “must”

2.     Doing will be
“-তে হবে” “-te habe”

61.   Study 61 English | Français

1.   Expression of Confirmation
“বটে” “bate”

62.   Study 62 English | Français

1.   Pensive Expression
“তো”to” / (“ত”ta”)

63.   Study 63 English | Français

1.   Review of Prefixes

64.   Study 64 English | Français

1.   Review of Suffixes

65.   Study 65 English | Français

1.   “Exists / goes on”
“রয়েছে”rayeche”

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